< cpp‎ | container‎ | vector

void push_back( const T& value );
void push_back( T&& value );
(2) (since C++11)

Appends the given element value to the end of the container.

1) The new element is initialized as a copy of value.
2) value is moved into the new element.

If the new size() is greater than capacity() then all iterators and references (including the past-the-end iterator) are invalidated. Otherwise only the past-the-end iterator is invalidated.


[edit] Parameters

value - the value of the element to append
Type requirements
T must meet the requirements of CopyInsertable in order to use overload (1).
T must meet the requirements of MoveInsertable in order to use overload (2).

[edit] Return value


[edit] Complexity

Amortized constant.

[edit] Exceptions

If an exception is thrown, this function has no effect (strong exception guarantee).

If T's move constructor is not noexcept and T is not CopyInsertable into *this, vector will use the throwing move constructor. If it throws, the guarantee is waived and the effects are unspecified. (since C++11)

[edit] Example

The following code uses push_back to add several integers to a std::vector<int>:

#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
int main()
    std::vector<int> numbers;
    for (int i : numbers) { // c++11 range-based for loop
        std::cout << i << '\n';
    return 0;



[edit] See also

constructs elements in-place at the end
(public member function)
removes the last element
(public member function)